A late catacomb painting represents a cross richly jeweled and adorned with flowers (Kraus, I, 133). Josephus tells the story of Herod the Great: “Certain things were done by Herod against the law for which he was accused by Judas and Matthias. There are pictures of His Passion even in the catacombs (e.g.,—he crowning of thorns in the Catacomb of Praetextatus on the Appian way—Leclercq, I, 542), but the favorite representation is either the Good Shepherd (by far the most frequent) or Christ showing His power, raising Lazarus, working some other miracle, standing among His Apostles, seated in glory. Whether to spare the susceptibility of new converts, or as a natural reaction from the condition of a persecuted sect, Christ is generally represented as splendid and triumphant. The sign in itself is nothing, but it shares the honor of its prototype. So also in “De bello Jud.”, 1. Both sides still maintain the same principles in this matter; both equally revere as an ecumenical synod the last council in which they met in unison before the final calamity. n. 1. A feeling of profound respect or reverence: an object held in veneration. n. 1. The Old Law—including the ten commandments—as far as it only promulgates natural law is of course eternal. The icon seems to have been in some sort the channel through which the saint was approached; it has an almost sacramental virtue in arousing sentiments of faith, love and so on, in those who gazed upon it; through and by the icon God worked miracles; the icon even seems to have had a kind of personality of its own, inasmuch as certain pictures were specially efficacious for certain graces (see F. Marin, “Les moines de Constantinople“, Paris, 1897, pp. The feast celebrates the triumph of the veneration of images and the definitive confirmation of the Christology developed in the first six ecumenical Councils, the doctrine which underlies the veneration of icons. Franc., II, 17, P.L., LXXI, 215). omn. The Veneration of Images —A Controversy. Of these there were many that had descended miraculously from heaven, or—like the most famous of all at Edessa—had been produced by our Lord Himself by impressing His face on a cloth (see “Dict. ]; but because the honor shown to them is referred to the prototypes which they represent, so that by kissing, uncovering to, kneeling before images we adore Christ and honor the saints whose likeness they bear” (Denzinger, no. DUODECIMUM SAECULUM (Veneration Of Holy Images) Pope John Paul II. Many non-Catholics have had great difficulty… Figures of a pope (Innocent III, 1198-1216) and an emperor preceding the processions of lambs were added later; but the essential plan of this mosaic (often restored) dates from the fourth century (see illustration in S. Beissel, S.J., “Altchristliche Kunst”, p. 130). Tertullian, “Adv. The meaning of the canon has been much discussed. cit., I, 85, 93, 94, 95, 105, 119, 121, etc., especially 130-3; Leclercq, op. It is always impossible to maintain that any sign or word must necessarily signify some one idea. In Latin, adoratio is generally (though not always; see e.g. cit., II, 245-78). St. Gregory the Great (d. 604) was always a great defender of holy pictures (see below). What was forbidden in the Commandment was a "graven image" (one of God). ), and what were the theraphim (Judges, xvii, 5)? 318-21; Hefele-Leclercq, op. For the first period we have no information. But, except for one late period, we notice that the commandment was never understood as an absolute and universal prohibition of any kind of image. Linguee. Both were used in orthodox worship. EN. But there was no new principle. Nor does it by any means obtain as a universal principle in later times. SOMEWHERE in Poland, a man is just about ready for his journey. The Turks by some accident have spared these mosaics in turning the church into a mosque. One sees with some surprise motives from mythology now employed in a Christian sense (Psyche, Eros, winged Victories, Orpheus), and evidently used as a type of our Lord. The most zealous Eastern defenders of the holy icons seem to have felt that, however justifiable such flat representations may be, there is something about a solid statue that makes it suspiciously like an idol. 238-45). It is the statues made and used with the full approval of the authorities which show that the words, “Thou shalt not make to thyself any graven image”, were not understood absolutely and literally. High-tech diagnostic imaging techniques that have allowed physicians to explore bodily structures and functions with a minimum of invasion to…, Imago Dei is Latin for "image of God," a theological doctrine common to Jews, Christians, and Muslims that denotes humankind's relation to God on the…, digital image In remote sensing, an image in which the continuous variation in the scene being sensed is converted to discrete variation in the form…, Imaginary Identification/Symbolic Identification, https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/images-veneration-images. As soon as the Church came out of the catacombs, became richer, had no fear of persecution, the same people who had painted their caves began to make statues of the same subjects. He consulted his abbot, who told him that he had better suffer the former evil (apparently even give way to the temptation) “rather than cease to worship our Lord and God Jesus Christ with His mother” (quoted by Schwarzlose, “Der Bilderstreit”, pp. St. Nilus in the fifth century blames a friend for wishing to decorate a church with profane ornaments, and exhorts him to replace these by scenes from Scripture (Epist. See Synonyms at honor. 2. In the West the exuberant use of statues and pictures during the Middle Ages is well known and may be seen in any cathedral in which Protestant zeal has not destroyed the carving. n. 1. Eastern Church“, pp. The earliest sarcophagi had bas-reliefs. Veneration of images is a religious practice that has no support in the Bible. Especially there are the cherubim, great carved figures of beasts (Ezech., i, 5; x, 20, where they are called beasts), that stood over the ark of the covenant (Ex., xxv, 18-22; III Kings, vi, 23-8; viii, 6-7, etc.). Look up words and phrases in comprehensive, reliable bilingual dictionaries and search through billions of online translations. Jud.”, 1. Others again, despising the churches, celebrate Divine Service in private houses, using an image as an altar” (Mansi, XIV, 417-22; Hefele-Leclercq, op. IMAGES, VENERATION OF The phrase refers to those exterior acts of honor or reverence directed to God, the angels, or the saints through some artifact of the representative or symbolic arts. This has been accentuated since the time of the Iconoclast heresy (see below, section 5). Sometimes the pope himself has crowned images for the chapter. 607-8). III). That is still the standpoint of the Catholic Church. They must be arranged according to a systematic scheme across the screen between the choir and the altar that from this fact is called iconostasis (eikonostasis, picture-stand; see Fortescue, “Orth. In any case it is certain that there were “likenesses of that which is in the sky above and on earth below and in the waters” in the orthodox Jewish cult. ; Acts, xv, 28-9). Images in the East were generally flat; paintings, mosaics, bas-reliefs. op. In itself it would mean no more than adding such additional splendor to the icon as might also be given by a handsome gold frame. The veneration of images Distinct from the admission of images is the question of the way they are treated. It made many severe laws against Christians who relapsed into idolatry, heresy, or sins against the Sixth Commandment. The Byzantine Rite shows if possible even more reverence for the holy icons. St. Paulinus of Nola (d. 431) paid for mosaics representing Biblical scenes and saints in the churches of his city, and then wrote a poem describing them (P.L., LXI, 884). The principle in the East was not universally accepted. Basil (d. 379), preaching about St. Barlaam, calls upon painters to do the saint more honor by making pictures of him than he himself can do by words (“Or. This is what they mean by latreia, and they declare emphatically that this kind of worship must be given to God only; it is sheer idolatry to pay latreia to any creature at all. Only now the situation has become more clearly defined. The Schoolmen discussed the whole question at length. Long afterwards the Frankish bishops in the eighth century were still unable to understand forms that in the East were natural and obvious, but to Germans seemed degrading and servile (Synod of Frankfort, 794—see Iconoclasm. They hold those to be profane who make images of the gods with corruptible materials in the likeness of man; for he is supreme and eternal, neither changeable nor mortal. 772-3). Perhaps they are too reminiscent of the old Greek gods. 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