piste Ho Chi Minh. The vehicles were then unloaded and reloaded onto "fresh" trucks at each station. The area through which the system meandered was among the most challenging in Southeast Asia: a sparsely-populated region of rugged mountains 500–2,400 metres (1,500–8,000 ft) in elevation, triple-canopy jungle and dense tropical rainforests. In Laos, the agency began Operation Pincushion in 1962 to accomplish that goal. :24 This had been accomplished due to the elections in May that had brought a right-wing government to power in Laos, its increasing dependence on U.S. military and economic aid, and an increasingly antagonistic attitude toward North Vietnam. These efforts were hindered by morning fog and overcast, and by the smoke and haze produced by the slash-and-burn agriculture practiced by the indigenous population. If a truck was disabled or destroyed, it was replaced from the assets of the next northern station and so on until it was replaced by a new one in North Vietnam. As a test of Vietnamization, "Lam Son 719" failed; one-half of the invasion force was lost during the operation. Although an airborne assault managed to seize Tchepone, it was a useless victory, as the South Vietnamese could only hold the town for a short period before being withdrawn due to attacks on the main column. 340p. Ils travaillaient tous pour un supplément de nourriture, du riz pur, alors que la ration ordinaire était du riz mélangé avec des haricots. The system provided support, in the form of manpower and materiel, to the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (called the Viet Cong or "VC") and the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN), or North Vietnamese Army, during the Vietnam War. Reliant la République démocratique du Viêt Nam et la zone sud du Viêt Nam, en passant par le Laos et le Cambodge, la piste Ho Chi Minh fut utilisée par l’Armée populaire vietnamienne et les combattants du Front national de libération du Sud Viêt Nam (FNL, ou Viêt Cong) pour le ravitaillement en nourriture et en matériel des miliciens du Sud. Super Mediathek! Reliant la République démocratique du Viêt Nam et la zone sud du Viêt Nam, en passant par le Laos et le Cambodge, la piste Ho Chi Minh fut utilisée par l’ Armée populaire vietnamienne et les combattants du Front national de libération du Sud Viêt Nam (FNL, ou Viêt Cong) pour le ravitaillement en nourriture et en matériel des miliciens du Sud. … The last U.S. forces departed in March 1973. :88, After the initiation of U.S. naval interdiction efforts in coastal waters, known as Operation Market Time, the trail had to do double duty. :3–4, As early as May 1958 PAVN and Pathet Lao (PL) forces had seized the transportation hub at Tchepone, on Laotian Route 9. L’effort de guerre de la population a été consenti par contrainte ou par patriotisme et pour améliorer son sort par un supplément alimentaire et une diminution d’impôt à une période d’extrême pauvreté et de difficultés économiques. :27 "Barrel Roll" continued in northeastern Laos while the southern panhandle was bombed in "Operation Steel Tiger". Si vous disposez d'ouvrages ou d'articles de référence ou si vous connaissez des sites web de qualité traitant du thème abordé ici, merci de compléter l'article en donnant les références utiles à sa vérifiabilité et en les liant à la section « Notes et références ». Fifty-six tests were conducted by October; 85% were judged to be successful. In March, General Văn Tiến Dũng launched "Campaign 275", the success of which prompted the general to push Hanoi for a final all-out offensive to take all of South Vietnam. :45 The supply capacity of the trail reached 20 to 30 tonnes per day in 1964 and it was estimated by the U.S. that 12,000 (actually 9,000) North Vietnamese regulars had reached South Vietnam that year. Due to the efforts of the PAVN 592nd Pipelaying Regiment, the number of pipelines entering Laos increased to six that year. The signing of the Paris Peace Accords seemed to bring the conflict in Southeast Asia to an end. United States officials had only estimates of its enemy's capabilities; intelligence collection agencies often conflicted with each other. Search. Live Fernsehen? ":170, There were nine Binh Trams between the dry season of 1967 to August 1968. :359, South Vietnamese troops were poorly led and the elite Ranger and Airborne elements had been decimated. piste Ho Chi Minh. U.S. intervention came in the form of building and supporting a CIA-backed clandestine army in its fight with the communists and constant bombing of the trail. Subject. :371 In July 1973 the 259th Group was redesignated the Truong Son Command, the regimental sectors were converted to divisions, and the binh trams were designated as regiments. :369 This was the first U.S. aircraft shot down by a SAM that far south during the conflict. HCMT70.jpg 1.140 × 1.484; 319 KB. Clark Dougan, David Fulghum, et al. , Throughout the war, ground operations by conventional units were somewhat limited to brief incursions into border sanctuaries. ":236–239 In some areas it worked, depending on the makeup of the soil. Watch Queue Queue. It began to muster forces which would eventually number 60,000 PAVN troops as well as several thousand allied Pathet Lao troops and Lao irregulars, outnumbering the ARVN by almost three to one. An example is Binh Tram 31: "They took responsibility from the Mu Gia Pass to Lum Bum (Route 128) and all the roads from Route 12 to Kontum, Route 129 from Ca Vat to Na Phi Lang. Spatial Coverage. La priorité américano-vietnamienne a été de diminuer ou mieux d’arrêter ce flux vital qui alimentait les combats dans le Sud. :21, The North Vietnamese also responded to the American aerial threat by the increased use of heavy concentrations of anti-aircraft artillery. User-contributed reviews Tags. "Operation Lam Son 719", the long-sought assault on the Ho Chi Minh trail itself and the ultimate test of the U.S. policy of Vietnamization, had begun. :8–70 The 559th Group "flipped" its line of communications to the west side of the Trường Sơn mountains. :261 The history claimed that allied aircraft destroyed some 4,000 trucks during the 1970–71 dry season, of which the C-130s alone destroyed 2,432 trucks. Declassified: Authority NND 873541. :218, Due to the increased effectiveness of "Commando Hunt", North Vietnamese transportation units usually took to the roads only at dusk with traffic peaking in the early morning hours. Archives par mot-clé : piste Ho Chi Minh Actualités / News , Séminaires François Guillemot : « Genèse d’une recherche sur les femmes et la guerre au Viêt-Nam » – Séminaire Félicité – 10/01/2020 The southwest monsoon (commonly called the rainy season) from mid-May to mid-September, brought heavy precipitation (70% of 3,800 mm (150 in) per year). There were numerous supply bunkers, storage areas, barracks, hospitals, and command and control facilities, all concealed from aerial observation by an intricate system of natural and man-made camouflage that was constantly improved. By the end of 1970 the 559th was running 27 "Binh Trams", which transported 40,000 tonnes of supplies with a 3.4% loss rate during the year. In December 1974 the first phase of a limited PAVN offensive in South Vietnam began. , In 1961 U.S. intelligence analysts estimated that 5,843 enemy infiltrators (actually 4,000) had moved south on the trail; in 1962, 12,675 (actually 5,300); in 1963, 7,693 (actually 4,700); and in 1964, 12,424. Das Winsuites Saigon in Ho-Chi-Minh-Stadt verfügt über ein Restaurant, einen Außenpool, ein Fitnesscenter und eine Bar. A "Binh Tram" was the equivalent of a regimental logistical headquarters and was responsible for securing a particular section of the network. The following day, the three aircraft departed from Udorn filled with tons of a mixture of nitrilotriacetic acid and sodium tripolyphosphate stuffed into cloth bags designed to break apart on impact. In 1959 the North Vietnamese created Transportation Group 759, which was equipped with 20 steel-hulled vessels to carry out such infiltration.  This was the beginning of an ever-expanding reconnaissance effort by MACV-SOG that would continue until the operation was disbanded in 1972. Hanoi also created the 470th Transportation Group to manage the flow of men and supplies to the new battlefields in Cambodia. 1971, La piste Ho Chi Minh Edition speciale [Paris] Wikipedia Citation. :75, The fighting in southeastern Laos was unlike any yet seen in the Vietnam War, since the PAVN abandoned its old hit-and-run tactics and launched a conventional counterattack. Language. Read reviews from world’s largest community for readers. Geirt, Van. Unknown to the US, the enemy had also begun to transport and store more than 81,000 tonnes of supplies "to be utilized in a future offensive". Materiel sent from the north was stored in caches in the border regions that were soon retitled "Base Areas" (BA), which, in turn, became sanctuaries for NLF and PAVN forces seeking respite and resupply after conducting operations in South Vietnam. En pleine guerre du Vietnam, las de bombarder des populations civiles, … Elephant Counter - Flickr - The Central Intelligence Agency.jpg 5.616 × 3.744; 1,96 MB. The Ho Chi Minh trail (Vietnamese: Đường mòn Hồ Chí Minh, also called Annamite Range trail (Vietnamese: Đường Trường Sơn) was a logistical network of roads and trails that ran from the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) to the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) through the kingdoms of Laos and Cambodia. A total of 14 PAVN divisions were now committed to the offensive. En pratique : Quelles sources sont attendues ? , As South Vietnamese forces were on the verge of collapse, President Richard M. Nixon responded by increasing the magnitude of the U.S. air support. Within this BT there were: 25th and 27th Engineer Battalions; 101st and 53rd Truck Transport Battalions; 14th AAA Battalion; two infantry companies; 8th Guide Battalion (soldiers to take troops and trucks from one station to the next); three stores companies; a communications company; a medical care unit; three teams of surgeons; a quarantine unit; and a workshop to repair trucks. By late-1974 forces under the new command included AAA Division 377, Transportation Division 571, Engineering Division 473, the 968th Infantry Division, and sectoral divisions 470, 471, and 472. In the early days of the conflict the trail was used strictly for the infiltration of manpower. Songs. , Human labour, pushing heavily laden bicycles, driving oxcarts, or acting as human pack animals, moving hundreds of tonnes of supplies in this fashion was quickly supplanted by truck transport—using Soviet, Chinese, or Eastern Bloc models—which quickly became the chief means of moving supplies and troops. 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