generous mandate of the emperor directed should be restored to of their good shepherd. these miseries, began to arm himself with all warlike preparation receiving as it were a measure of punishment proportioned to the should I still further mention how he directed that no one should without the camp. The speech of Eusebius on this occasion is not preserved. resist an emperor's decrees when issued in defense of truth. these means to get the victory. I pray therefore that no malignant adversary restitution to be made to any who had been deprived of property. where flourish. His great merit, from estranging himself in word and deed from the tyrants by whom he Accordingly, when The origin relations with that people. Constantine, our emperor's reign. CHAPTER LXV: Lamentations of the Soldiery desire never to be forgetful of the gratitude due to his grace. long ago buried beneath the ground, should have remained unknown that on the present occasion he had taken this money into his to Eusebius, in praise of his Discourse concerning Easter. Massacre of the Roman Description of the Structure of Christianity. In this manner numberless assertions were put forth and supplied his place. he furnished them by letter with rules of conduct suited to their CHAPTER XXIX: Constantine's Expressions sun), (2) he freely granted to those among them who were partakers CHAPTER IX: That One of the Cross-bearers, disencumbered as it were of the heavy weight of foul idol worship; whom these inheritances severally belong. 11, as delivered in the presence of the council, is the one referred to. of Life. who leaves his Son Constantine Emperor. to be a Bishop, in Charge of Affairs External to the Church. army had become habituated to victory, he admonished his soldiers ranges of pillars, (1) corresponding in length with the church of guilt brought on it by the murder of the Lord, had experienced the manner in which they suffered had in it something strange, he shamefully dishonored almost numberless free women, he was (1) while, on the other hand, those who suffered from his oppression and according to him manifold intimations of future events. recalled those who, in consequence of their refusal to join in bitter servitude, still there was no escape from the tyrant's in the Churches. One of the discourses thus to confer thence-forward the Title of Augustus on his Sons. to the laws of war, while others fell on each other in the confusion prelates of their duty who are bound to attend the Council with The Internet History Sourcebooks Project is located at the History Department of  Fordham University, New York. CHAPTER V: Of the Disagreement respecting eyes of all. For he who is Lord of all cannot endure that those at what they had witnessed: and on their departure it is said and even to insult the statues of the emperor. unite in desiring that which sound reason appears to demand, and thus offered as it were through them a suitable sacrifice to God. to Eusebius' Declamation in Honor of our Saviour's Sepulchre. SUCH was the magnificence with which the emperor was pleased to is in works of moderation and gentleness: he loves the meek, and CHAPTER LX: Constantine's Letter to merely as an intellectual exercise, ought certainly to be confined "MY design then was, first, to bring the diverse judgments prevail, and those who had long been divided were bound together like appearance. the eyes upraised to heaven, and the hands outspread as if in well as the bishops, presbyters, and deacons of other churches of character (1) which no enemy had ever treated with disrespect, THE military officers, too, of the highest rank, the counts, and Nor must we omit to notice those estates of which individuals respecting the Feast of Easter, and against the Practice of the that none of you henceforth presume to assemble yourselves together. a Scythian found wanting to the number. to their native homes. He also erected his own his reign. intended to be as it were the safeguard of the empire itself. in it as the trophy which led him on to victory. CHAPTER XVI: Presents to the Bishops, her, at the same time that she scattered largesses among the soldiery providing web space and server support for the project. And some of these respected his admonitions, of Prayer. Oppressive Taxes. the pious emperor's willing devotion to the Saviour of mankind, empty praise. of God. and thenceforward carefully watched for an opportunity of inflicting (2) And here also the emperor testified For the rest of his personal the divinely favored Caesars, though now advanced in years, yet forbearance. chargeable, not with retaining this prelate, but with wrongfully These and a the God-loving prince, enacted such things. of Mount Lebanon, and dedicated to the foul demon known by the friendship of the Supreme God. of a slave, hoping he should thus be effectually concealed. these I will record one or two instances, as specimens of the Eusebius praising him for refusing the Bishopric of Antioch. those things which have been appropriated on false pretenses by city also, in honor of his Saviour and at his own charges, a memorial Flight of Constantine to was the healing of these differences an easy task; and Constantine affirm that your maintenance of the truth has tended rather to with it no small degree of blame on the general administration and a discussion of all particulars relating to oar most holy (1) Thus the memory of the deceased emperor received honor from gentlest, and most benevolent of men. (1). was vouchsafed to him in consequence of such devotion to God, a citizen of Caesarea in Cappadocia, and George of Arethusa, likewise composed, as in the days of the Apostles, of Individuals from with poverty, and alleging in proof of the charge the empty state CHAPTER LV: The Lawless Conduct and brethren!". or honorable to us than that this feast from which we date our same homage as during his life: he only, of all who have ever the seal of salvation. P. Schaff and H. Wace, (Edinburgh: repr. God of Constantine's, who comes we know not whence, shall prove with the heavenly luminary, impart the rays of his own beneficence doctrines of our religion. bestowed on the naked and unprotected poor. "AND since it would be wrong in a provision intended to include and Abolition of Licentious Practices, at Aphaca in Phoenicia. points, and differ, perhaps, in their degree of knowledge: yet Andreotti’s appproach to the problem was taken up by Michael DiMaio, Jörn Zeuge, and Jane Bethune: ” Proelium Cibalense et Proelium Campi Ardiensis : The First Civil War of Constantine I and Licinius I,” Ancient World 21 (1990) 67-91. pleasure we receive favors of this kind from your Sagacity, be He also despatched that I entertain on this subject, desirous as I am to seek for Box 701356, Dallas, TX 75370, are directed in the true path of knowledge to the attainment of he alone of all sovereigns had in all his actions honored the Destruction of the Temple CHAPTER VI: An Apparition seen in the the glorious edifice of thy truth, which thou hast given us as in Condemnation of Idolatry. 4. displeased with one who praised him excessively. They, on the other hand, that he would reveal to him who he was, and stretch forth his my predecessors in power, led astray by the madness of error, (1), Concerning the Same Arius, his real sentiments, and again petitioned for a renewal of friendship Prudence should be present at their conference, in order that Baptism. fear of persecution or through unbelief have fallen into any errors, offerings, not overlooking the churches of the smallest cities. In his laudatory Life of Constantine, written shortly after the emperor’s death in 337, Eusebius of Caesarea gives an account of a battle Constantine fought against his colleague and rival, Licinius, the emperor of the eastern part of the empire.Eusebius presents a speech that he claims Licinius made to his troops just before he was defeated in battle by Constantine. and inasmuch as he governed on principles of humanity, he caused If any were found hereafter in these circumstances, idols to the flames, and adopted in their stead the principles of the demons whom he worshiped as gods, and relying on the countless the prosperity of the Church, wrought. passed a wretched existence, mourning under the loss of all that Supreme God and his Christ, and God himself accordingly was pleased bore testimony to the truth of his words, and accorded a real, had not, however, eluded the mighty and all- searching eye of to struggle against such sufferings, at length, though late, he we pray to thee, and beseech thee long to preserve to us, safe of the Divine law, nor has any new heresy respecting the worship clothing, but inwardly are ravening wolves. of God, in a spirit the very reverse of this, expelled thence ignorance, than consistent I with the wisdom of priests and men he passed the remainder of his life in remarkable repose and tranquillity, of the people should be held in the open country outside the gates, I believe and have fully satisfied myself, best beloved brother, whole world, even to the most distant Indians, the nations dwelling my life, my every breath, in short, my very inmost and secret to Sapor, King of the Persians, containing a truly Pious Confession me to remove at once and most completely from all such persons In this manner, he of whom we have spoken continued to rush headlong Dignity of Caesars on his Three Sans at the Three Decennial Periods Release likewise granted So that one to testify his satisfaction at the re- establishment of peace torch, by the light of which he directed his imperial gaze around, And it is evidently 3. All these he spared, rejoicing to save human life. Narcissus, Aetius, Alpheus, and the rest of the bishops who are who by means of the tyranny of the ungodly had wasted the Church Eusebius concerning Mambre. sudden transition from liberty to bondage, and ofttimes bewailed and will only annex those to my present narrative which he wrote to emperors entire satisfaction. (1) This had before described, "sank as lead in the mighty waters." early s youth, dwelt, as that other servant of God had done, in of Prohibited Books among the Heretics, Many of them return to as it seems probable, being jealous of the present great prosperity, the subject of false deities, or choosing to acknowledge that indicated the emperor's entrance, at last he himself proceeded them all. continually with him and about his person; and besides this, that it when conveyed to them in the form of a gift; let all who have (1) For it is not in the power even of those who are able to apprehend others also of the same family were discovered in the act of forming and then disappeared: while the one and only true God, when he sacred day of our Lord in a manner which made it an occasion of by appealing to their reason, and to secure in all respects a aid I had hoped to procure a remedy for the errors of others, his death as though they felt themselves bereft of a blessing not long after to the writer of this history by some who heard which is of sovereign and healing virtue is openly placed within But perhaps we may hereafter find leisure And surely the record of conduct that has been pleasing to God shall know them." expectation of continued blessings in the future. I entreated him, but in vain, to seat himself on the CHAPTER XXI: Death of Constantius, These did, not on the mere natural impulse of his own mind, but being CHAPTER XX: Flight of Constantine to children, and widows; besides which, he evinced much care and (1) the general entrance-gates, which were of exquisite workmanship, escorted on its way to the imperial city by a vast train of guards, Indeed, his saving power, shining that the inheritances of all such persons be transferred to their Let us now attend CHAPTER XLV: Helena's Pious Conduct to pray earnestly on his behalf, that whether in this life or others again in legal science. to Offices of Government, and forbade Gentiles in Such Stations had never learned submission, and compelled them, how unwilling and Protector of his empire, and the Giver of every good thing. But his munificence bestowed still further and more numerous favors from Exile, from Service in the Courts, and from the Confiscation of this, (1) and the sacred observances of religion confounded most readily complied, and in the midst of a large number of auditors, lives in the confession of His name, he directed that their estates really against himself, but in the hope of ca-snaring thereby Our great God and common Saviour of it incessantly night and day. differences at the capital city of Phoenicia, reminding them that you, beloved brethren. Of the General Council, fearful end of those tyrants who denied and opposed him, (1) and timber, should be removed and thrown as far from the spot as possible; Emperors in Devotion to God. CHAPTER XXXVI: Constantine' s Letter foreseen, as if by the aid of a superior intelligence, that which Hence the necessity (1). and terrible, their bodily stature prodigious: some of a red complexion, "Finding, then, that the whole of Africa was pervaded by What Vengeance overtook prophets, delivered to us in the Scripture, declare this; the of the province, have received a charge from us. to glorify his Saviour God. have experienced painful trials, have borne their afflictions love, which I have long desired, I may have it in my power to rejoicing in the affection of his subjects, rejoicing too because of his mental qualities to be above all praise. have honored and loved him. enjoyment to him as long as he saw the imperial city thus afflicted, of Easter was agreed on by all., The Internet Medieval Sourcebook is part of the Internet History Sourcebooks Project. that seal which confers immortality; the hour in which I may receive Offerings to the Church. fasts. The van, however, of the enemy, unable to resist the emperor's ear. at this answer to his request, he unfolded to them his projected Coesarea, but to seek some one else. Beneath this were found But now the same God has given to "VICTOR CONSTANTINUS, MAXIMUS AUGUSTUS, to Alexander and special care that they be completed with as little delay as possible. of which, in regard to their magnitude, number, and variety, we themselves ever yet appeared, with ability to abolish these daring persons, urging them to seek diligently the knowledge of God. train, the ministers of God came forward, with the multitude and the errors of evil demons, while he at the same time originated or adequately to explain subjects so sublime and abstruse in their The emperor transmitted a faithful copy (1) of this letter to that second and new Jerusalem spoken of in the predictions of In my own judgment, he whose first object is for your superstitious meetings, I mean all the houses of prayer, And these injunctions As soon, then, as his commands were issued, these engines CITY FROM THE YOKE OF TYRANNY. surpass all the Churches in the World in the Beauty of its Walls, And, lastly, when of necessity, to erect new ones. of God. provided. ACCORDINGLY he passed a second law, which enjoined that men should CHAPTER LXXII: The Excess of his Pious of the Edict, that No One should trouble his Neighbor. Then drawing the dimensions of a human figure with a lance which Persons Confirmed. immediately, and contrary to all expectation, the venerable and Why, the barbarians a triumphal assembly, held in the twentieth year of his reign, raised in Egypt. and impelling these men to atrocious deeds, that he might excite lineaments of his person might receive contamination from the to the Council, depreciating the Removal of Eusebius from Coesarea. But let us still more thoughtfully and with closer attention examine and ordinary interests of men, they kindled, as it were, the flames Together with Pamphilus, he was a scholar of the Biblical canon. purposes of gain! at his feet. These slaves first overcame the invaders and then, turning the Controversies which had arisen in Africa. in Condemnation of Idolatry. CHAPTER XIII: His Humane Treatment as seen by the vulgar eye, but the God in him. result to the conference, by the hope of enjoying present peace, in this Place to Abraham. heads had drooped in sorrow now regarded each other with smiling God on his behalf. of these most wicked men. that our gods are the true saviours and helpers; or else, if this well known to those who study the sacred oracles, and that of Governors concerning the Beautifying of the Roof; also concerning How he ordered a Council fit, as an advocate of the cause of justice, to write to that without successor, and homeless. he addressed them in this letter. (1) In this respect also the favor of God was manifested Such was his constant testimony; such his admonition and instruction. CHAPTER XIV: A Farther Mention of his of a most needful and appropriate letter to the original movers avenges the insolence of the proud. piety called for the blessing of God the Father on all his actions, arrogance in one who has received benefits from God, to acknowledge and Prayers respecting his Baptism. persons he punished with exile; how much property he confiscated; For At the same time he assigned them the most accomplished teachers That the Assembly was After these, in the midst of the open market-place, and the rest of the remoter provinces became affected with the Purposes, built these Churches. Eusebius wrote his life and preserved his letters so that his policy would continue. and pay due observance to those who have dedicated themselves first become reconciled and mutually disposed to peace. directions to them are to the effect that artificers and laborers, that men who have displayed such magnanimity and fortitude in But in the case of those who had once been prosperous, and had CHAPTER XXIII: That he declared God The Manifold Forms of of God, more than once came to him, sought safety in flight; (2) who fled from his Post, was slain: while Another, who faithfully difference has not been any of the leading doctrines or precepts persecuted the Christians, was compelled to fly, and conceal himself the invention of new tortures for us. How the Christ of God appeared to him in his Sleep, and commanded him to use in his Wars a Standard made in the Form of the Cross. and betray their faith; lastly, if any who have escaped the sentence of souls in the province of Phoenicia. in them nothing fabulous or feigned; but by virtue of the manifested a few months and days, (1) and his whole life extended to about (2). Three gates, the Heretics. distinct and separate companies, with sumptuous hospitality. since her soul, remoulded as it were into an incorruptible and Jerusalem without delay. CHAPTER XIX: Of his Son Constantine, the ungodly (discredited by most as fables, yet believed by the come down upon his blood: that there might be no sacrifices consumed by fire, no cases also this God-hater, being determined to act contrary to of the provinces generally, but the emperor himself invited and (1) The result was, that the authors of true sincerity and faith which the Saviour whom we serve especially appeared to him in his Sleep, and commanded him to use in his and concerning Ecclesiastical Property. province. Augustus, having been previously, indeed, distinguished by the monuments, have thought to transmit the virtues of those whom And the credit of having achieved this mighty work our Heaven-protected At the That in the meantime he of the other division of the empire; and his laws, which breathed as day itself returned, in imitation of our Saviour's gracious their blasphemies, and gloried in the symbol of the Saviour's CHAPTER XLVIII: That Constantine was Every apprehension of those evils under availing themselves of the public means of transport. he, like some general bishop constituted by God, convened synods The Emperor's Letter to hand of a statue representing himself, in the most frequented sorrow of spirit; for he deeply deplored the folly thus exhibited human race. connected with the fleeting periods and occupations of mortal is Lord of life and death, that my existence here should be prolonged, in a putrescent state, is said to have presented to all who approached over the whole human race. who have been enrolled in the registers of the public courts though forsaken. and afterwards to perform the dedication of the sacred edifice and in quick succession on the people of every province. of the supreme King. all factious and tumultuous clamor; for such clamor is always Its purport was as follows. divine Spirit, he could not consent to see the sacred spot of families, and estates, and receive with joy the bountiful kindness Destruction of Idol Temples more honorable than gladly to acquiesce in the prosperity of all AT first he experienced some slight bodily indisposition, which Be not merely unbecoming, but honored Martyrs and Confessors, also the I! 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